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Handbook of Estonian Solar Radiation Climate

Eesti kiirguskliima teatmik Compiled by: Viivi Russak, Ain Kallis
Edited by: Heino Tooming
Year of publication: 2003

Handbook is compiled at the Estonian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.384 sheets, hardcover (text is in Estonian language; tables, figures and appendixes are in Estonian and English).

Full text copy of the book pdf (9,29 MB)

Episodic measurments of solar radiation have been carried out in Estonia as early as the 1930´s. Continuous observations of the components of the radiation budget began in Tartu in January 1950.

This book should be of interest to a wide variety of specialists, including climatologists, meteorologists, biologists, farmers, architects, solar power specialists, those in medical fields such as dermatology and epidemiology, as well as many others.


  • Introduction
  • The Sun as a source of light
  • Short history of solar radiation measurments
  • Sun-Earth realtionshipsSolar radiation measurments
    Radiation in the atmosphere and at the surface. Solar radiation instrumentation.
  • Requirements for radiation stations
  • Sunshine duration
  • Cloudiness
  • Atmospheric transparency
  • Instantaneous observations
  • Hourly, daily, monthly and yearly totals of radiation (at Toravere and Tiirikoja)
    Direct radiation. Diffuse radiation. Global radiation. Reflected short-wave radiation. Albedo. Ultraviolet radiation. Net radiation.
  • Long-term trends in the components of radiation budget.
  • Radiation on non-horizontal surfaces.
    Tilted surfaces. Vertical walls.
  • Illuminance
  • Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)
  • Estonian-English-Russian dictionary of radiation terms
  • References
  • Symbols, units
  • Appendixes